Alanya, Turkey

The main attraction of this city is the Byzantine fortress on top of the mountain. It was built by Sultan Aladdin Keykubid at the beginning of the 13th century. The fortress stands on the ruins of earlier Roman military fortifications, and has three rows of walls, 83 towers and 140 bastions. This is the only surviving Seljuk fortress in the world. In its inner part there are many interesting monuments. These are the mosque of Suleiman the Magnificent, the tomb of Akshabe Sultun, the palace of Sultan Aladdin, the palace of Siii Zeynep.

Excursions to the Red Tower and the Shipyard are interesting. The Red Tower was designed to guard the shipyard, located in the eastern part of the city port. This huge octagonal tower reaches 33 meters in height and consists of 5 floors. It was called red due to the red brick, unusual in these places, from which its upper and lower parts are built. The shipyard was built by the Seljuks in 1228. It consists of five lanes with a depth of 44 m and a length of 56 m.

In addition to these attractions, in Alanya it is worth visiting the old city with picturesque crooked streets, the Kasra baths, where for the first time in the history of Anatolian fine art figured frescoes were used to decorate the dome, and, finally, the Damlatash cave, next to which the Ethnographic Museum is located, also worthy of attention.

Alanya is also famous for its caves, the most visited of which is the fantastic Damlatas cave with a bizarre interweaving of stalactites and stalagmites. The internal conditions of this cave (temperature – +22-23 C, humidity – 90-98%) are very favorable for the treatment of asthma and other respiratory diseases. In the “Maiden Cave” pirates hid the kidnapped girls, there is also the “Cave of the Lovers” and the “Phosphorus Cave”, so named because of the interesting effect of illumination.

According to, Karaburun is a small village where you can see the ruins of the ancient city of Justiniano.

Leartis Learti – here you can also see the ancient ruins. Baths, wells, a small amphitheater, temples, columns, etc. are perfectly preserved.

The ruins of Siedra, a Roman city founded in the 3rd century. BC. Numerous mosaics and columns, a triumphal arch and three pools, which apparently served as reservoirs of drinking water, have been perfectly preserved to this day.

Alar yard – an architectural ensemble created in 1232 by Aladdin Keykubat, 35 km. from Alanya, near the Alara river. Here you can see the ancient caravanserai, a mosque, a chapel, a spring and a bathhouse.

Sharavsinsky caravanserai – was built in the middle of the 13th century by the son of Sultan Aladdin Keykubat. It is located 15 kilometers from Alanya, on the way to Antalya.

Termessos is an ancient city located 30 kilometers from Alanya. This is the only city in the region that Alexander the Great failed to conquer. In the history of this city there were two periods of prosperity – the first refers to the Hellenistic era, the second – to the era of Roman rule. In the 5th century AD. Termessos suddenly became empty – its inhabitants completely abandoned it for reasons that are not entirely clear. Stone roads, a theater and a gymnasium have been perfectly preserved in the city. Six temples and reservoirs carved into the rock for storing water and oil have also survived to this day.

In the city of Side founded in the 7th century BC e. Greek colonists, the remains of an amphitheater for 16 thousand spectators, a statue of Emperor Vespasian, a temple of Fortune, a fountain, an agora, Roman baths (which now houses an archaeological museum), a necropolis and an aqueduct have survived to this day.

Natural Phenomenon Pamukkale

Pamukkale means “cotton castle” in Turkish. At this point, the action of hot springs containing calcium oxide led to the formation of lime deposits on rocky terraces. Water rich in mineral salts, falling from the ledges, created dazzling white cascades. From a distance, this snow-white mass, which stands out against the background of neighboring hills, looks like cotton plantations. The healing properties of this water have been known for centuries. Streams of water, flowing from the top for centuries, formed natural pools and bizarre formations along the entire slope. During the tour, you can take baths, which were appreciated by Cleopatra. Nearby hotels also use this water in purpose-built pools.

Not far from Pamukkale stood the city of Laodicea, then in its place they built the “sacred city” Hierapolis, whose ruins can still be seen today. The Roman theater (II century AD), whose tribunes stretched along the slopes of the hill could accommodate up to 25 thousand spectators, as well as the Thermae complex, where, according to legend, Cleopatra herself bathed, the temple of Apollo (III century BC), has been preserved in good condition. AD), the Martyrium of St. Philip (beginning of the 5th century AD) and the monumental gate of the Arch of Domitian with three apertures (1st century AD). The necropolis of Hierapolis is one of the largest in Turkey – the tombs of different eras stretch on both sides of the road for more than 2 km. The ancient theater is still used today during the colorful Pamukkale Festival. Bodrum┬áCity is the birthplace of the historian Herodotus. Its history “saw” many battles, the city often changed hands, witnessing the rise and fall of many ancient civilizations. In ancient times, the huge tomb – “mausoleum” built here by the Persian satrap Mausolus was considered one of the seven wonders of the world (now there is an interesting museum on this site). At the entrance to the bay of the city stands Bodrum Castle or the medieval castle of St. Peter, which today houses the Museum of Underwater Archeology. The museum contains unique underwater finds of the Mediterranean.

Bursa – the first capital of the Ottoman state, was founded in the II century. BC. e. called Prusa. This is a unique city, a real collection of historical monuments in the open air. The main attractions are the Green Mausoleum (Yesil Turbe) with magnificent green and turquoise tiles, the white marble Green Mosque (Yesil Jami), the oldest mosque in the city – Orkhan Gazi Jami (1336), the Beyazit Mosque (Yildidim Beyazit Jami, 1391), built in honor of Sultan Murad I, who died in the famous “battle on the Kosovo field” – Chekirge (or Mosque of Murad I, 1389) with a mausoleum located opposite him, the only one in Turkey the twenty-domed mosque Ulu Jami (1421), as well as the unique complex of mausoleums in Muradiyya, where many Ottoman sultans are buried. You should visit the Turkic-Islamic Museum with an excellent exposition of fabrics embroidered in the folk style, ivory and faience from Iznik, and many other interesting exhibits. The Archaeological Museum has a collection of Anatolian jewelry, Roman glassware, coins and sculpture. Many tourists are attracted by one of the oldest markets in the East – Koza Khan, built in 1490, when Bursa was a major city on the “Great Silk Road”.

History in Turkey

Since the Stone Age, Turkey has been the cradle of many civilizations. From the XIV-XII centuries BC, the Greeks lived on the territory of modern Turkey. They were engaged in trade and navigation. In the 600s BC, the Persians conquered this territory. The dominance of the Persians lasted until 334 BC, until Alexander the Great conquered them and the Roman Empire began to dominate this territory. After the split of the Roman Empire (230), Constantinople (modern Istanbul) became the capital of the eastern part of the Roman Empire. Later, in 1071, the Seljuk Turks first appeared on these lands. Gradually they settled throughout the Asian part of Turkey. In 1453, Istanbul is conquered by the Ottoman Empire and Turkey becomes part of the Ottoman Empire until the 20th century. The collapse of the empire began during the First World War, and in 1923 the Republic was proclaimed. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk became the first President of Turkey. The Turks respect this man very much, and in every city you can see his monument.

Alanya, Turkey

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