Cameroon Population

Population Distribution

As of 2023, the latest population of Cameroon is 27,744,989, based on our calculation of the current data from UN (United Nations).

Total population 27,744,989
Population growth rate 2.78%
Birth rate 35.40 births per 1,000 people
Life expectancy
Overall 55.02 years
Men 54.10 years
Women 55.95 years
Age structure
0-14 years 42.15%
15-64 years 54.62%
65 years and above 3.23%
Median age 18.40 years
Gender ratio (Male to Female) 1.01
Population density 58.36 residents per km²
Urbanization 51.40%
Over 200 ethnic groups: approx. 40% Bantu mainly in the S and E (including Bafia, Bakoko, Bakweri, Balong, Banen, Basaa, Batanga, Bulu, Duala, Eton, Ewondo, Maka, Mbo, Yambasa), 20% Semibantu and Adamawa in the west (including Bafut, Bali, Bamileke, Bamun, Banso, Kom, Tikar, Widikum), Sudan-speaking ethnic groups, Fulbe, Hausa and so-called pygmies in the north and center
Indigenous religions 40%, Christians 40%, Muslims 20%
Human Development Index (HDI) 0.563
HDI ranking 150th out of 194

People in Cameroon

Around 25 million people live in Cameroon. A little more than half live in a city (56 percent), the rest live in rural areas. The biggest cities are Douala and Yaoundé. The north-western highlands are particularly densely populated.

The population is growing rapidly, because every woman has an average of 4.6 children. Children and young people therefore make up a large part of the population. 42 percent are under 15 years old. However, only three percent are older than 65 years. Almost three (2.7) out of 100 babies die in childbirth, and about five (5.1) out of 100 children do not live to be a year old.

Which ethnic groups live in Cameroon?

The Cameroonians belong to very many peoples. How many is not known exactly, but estimates are based on more than 230 peoples. There are just as many languages.

In the north of the country there are some peoples whose religion is Islam. The Fulbe (also called Fulani) belong to them as one of the largest groups. They make up around ten percent of the population. Other Islamic peoples are the Kanuri and the Musgum. Other peoples in the north have opposed Islam. They include the Massa and Mundang. Peoples like the Gbaya cannot be classified according to their religion, because some are Muslims and others, for example, Christians. Some of these peoples speak Chad languages.

The western highlands are particularly densely populated. Peoples who speak grassland languages ​​live here. They include the Bamileke and the Bamum. Until the 19th century there were a few smaller kingdoms here, including the Kingdom of Bamum. The grassland Cameroonians make up around 38 percent of the population.

Peoples like the Bassa, the Kpe, the Batanga and the Douala live on the coast. These peoples speak Bantu languages. A large number of peoples also live in the rainforest of the south. Ewondo, Basaa, Ngumba, Eton, Bulu, Makaa, Njem, Ndzimu, Baka and Fang are just a few of them.

Languages in Cameroon

So many languages ​​are spoken in Cameroon. The official languages ​​are not the languages ​​of the peoples living here, but French and English. After the First World War, the land was given to France and Great Britain by the League of Nations. France received the larger area with eight regions, Great Britain two regions. Even after independence in 1960, the prevailing languages ​​remained the official language.


In the English-speaking part, the north-west and south-west regions, Kamtok is often spoken. This is a creole language based on English. It is the lingua franca that different peoples use to communicate with one another.

Since the majority of the population lives in this part of the country, around half of all residents speak Kamtok as a second language. Kamtok is also spreading in the neighboring parts of the country, for example in the capital Yaoundé. However, there is also a French Creole language called Camfranglais.


In the north of the country, the Fulfulde takes on this function as the lingua franca. It is the language of the Fulani (Fulani) who make up a large part of the population here.


In the rest of the country, i.e. in the center, south and east, it is the Ewondo language that many people use to communicate. Ewondo is one of the Bantu languages.

Religions in Cameroon

In Cameroon, 70 percent of the population are Christian. They are divided into 38 percent Catholics and 26 percent Protestants as well as other Christian denominations.

20 percent of the population are Muslims. They live mainly in the north of the country.

Only six percent still follow traditional African religions, especially residents of the southeastern region. However, there are also many Christians who still believe in spirits and magic.

Cameroon Overview

Cameroon, located in Central Africa, is famous for its diverse landscapes, rich cultural heritage, and wildlife diversity. The country is home to stunning natural wonders such as Mount Cameroon, the highest peak in West Africa, and the lush rainforests of the Congo Basin. Cameroon’s cultural mosaic is reflected in its traditional dances, handicrafts, and cuisine, which blends influences from its numerous ethnic groups. The capital city, Yaoundé, is known for its colonial architecture and vibrant markets. With its incredible biodiversity, including national parks like Waza and Korup, Cameroon offers unparalleled opportunities for wildlife viewing and eco-tourism.

  • Capital City: Yaoundé
  • Population: Approximately 26.5 million
  • Area: 475,442 square kilometers
  • Full Country Name: Republic of Cameroon
  • Currency: Central African CFA Franc (XAF)
  • Language: French, English
  • ISO Country Codes: CM, CMR

Bordering Countries of Cameroon

Cameroon is a Central African nation located in the western part of the continent, bordered by six countries. To the north lies Chad, to the east and south east are the Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo, to the south are Gabon and Equatorial Guinea, and to the west is Nigeria. The country’s total land area is 475,442 km2 (183,569 sq mi), with varying terrain including mountains, savannas, grasslands and coastal plains.

The Cameroon-Chad border stretches for 1,094 km (678 mi) along a north-south line from Lake Chad in the north to Lake Fianga in the south. The countries share a long history of cross-border migration as well as trade across this border.

The Cameroon-Central African Republic border is 809 km (503 mi) long and runs from Lake Fianga in the south to Lom Pangar Reservoir in the north. This border has been subject to many disputes over territory as both countries have made claims on certain parts of it.

The Cameroon-Republic of Congo border runs for 523 km (325 mi) along an east-west line from Mpoko River in the west to Boumba River in the east. This border has also been subject to many disputes due to conflicting claims over certain areas by both countries.

The Cameroon-Gabon border stretches for 319 km (198 mi) along a northwest-southeast line from Ntem River in Gabon’s Estuaire Province to Ogooué River at its mouth near Libreville. This border was established through an agreement between France and Germany which divided their respective colonial possessions into two separate colonies – French Cameroun & German Kamerun – during World War I era.

The Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea border runs for 189 km (117 mi) along an east-west line from Ntem River on its western end to Wouri River at its eastern end near Douala city. This boundary was established between Spain & Germany during World War I era when Spanish Guinea ceded their portion of Ambazonia region which now forms part of Equatorial Guinea’s mainland territory while German Kamerun ceded their portion which now forms part of Cameroon’s mainland territory.

Finally, Nigeria borders Cameroon on its western side with this boundary running for 1,690 km (1,053 mi). The Nigerian side is dominated by tropical rainforest while much of Cameroon’s side consists of savannah grasslands & highlands interspersed with forested areas & mountain ranges such as Mandara Mountains which form part of this international boundary between both countries.

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