Science and Culture in Sweden
According to Educationvv, nine years of education is compulsory. Children go to school at the age of 6 or 7 years. Most children attend community schools, which are free of charge. Almost all students (98%) then continue their education at the gymnasium (3 years) according to one of the theoretical or practical training programs. Slightly more than 1/3 of gymnasium graduates enter institutes or universities. Sweden’s total R&D spending is 3.8% of GDP, the highest among OECD countries.
In Sweden ca. 40 institutions of higher education, mostly public, and education is free. More than 100 thousand students, a large number of them over 25 years old. They already have work experience, which makes it easier for them to enter a university. OK. 1/4 of the adult population have higher education.
Among the 6 universities, the oldest is the University of Uppsala (founded in 1477), somewhat later, in 1668, the University of Lund was opened. In the 19th century opened universities in Stockholm and Gothenburg. The youngest universities are located in Umeå and Linköping. There are polytechnic institutes in Stockholm and Gothenburg. The Karolinska Medical and Surgical Institute and the Higher Trade School in Stockholm gained world fame.
A wide network of public schools for adults makes it possible for adults with insufficient education to receive the same level of education as ordinary students. More than 2.5 million people annually they study at various courses and circles, formed by private educational organizations, but subsidized by the state.
The Swedish people have made a significant contribution to the development of world science and culture. The naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707–78), who founded the Royal Academy of Sciences in 1739, had a tremendous influence on the development of science in Sweden. He laid the foundations for the systematics of flora and fauna. His contemporary astronomer and physicist Anders Celsius (1701–44) created the oldest astronomical observatory in Sweden and introduced the centigrade scale for thermometers. A great contribution to the development of chemistry was made by Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1779–1848), who developed electrochemical and atomistic theories and created scientific mineralogy, and Svante Arrhenius (1859–1927), who created the theory of electrolytic dissociation and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1903. Alfred Nobel (1833-96) invented dynamite, which brought him fame and fortune. Nobel donated the bulk of his fortune to the foundation, from which the Nobel Prizes are awarded annually. The awards are presented in Stockholm and Oslo on December 10, the day of the scientist’s death.
In the history of technology, the names of Jon Eriksson (1803–89), the designer of the first ship propellers, steamships, and steam locomotives, and engineer Carl Gustav Laval (1845–1913), who invented the steam turbine and separator, are known.
In the history of Swedish art, a special place belongs to the work of the poet, composer and singer of the 18th century. Carl Mikael Belman (1740-95). The poet’s birthday is celebrated every summer with festivities in the Haga and Skansen parks. In literature, the name of the romantic poet of the 1st floor is widely known. 19th century Esaias Tegner (1782-1846). The masterpiece of his work is the poem “The Saga of Fridtjof”, written on the plot of the ancient Scandinavian saga. August Strindberg (1849-1912) Swedish literary colossus. His extensive creative heritage covers a variety of genres of art. Outside of Sweden, he is best known as an author of dramatic works. Romantic and folklore motifs fill the works of Selma Lagerlöf (1858–1940), who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1909. Her best known novel is The Saga of Este Berling. The book “Nils’ Amazing Journey with Wild Geese” written for children received worldwide fame. This book is a hymn to the nature and people of Sweden. Wilhelm Muberg (1898-1973) was called a classic of Swedish literature during his lifetime, whose fame was brought by epic novels about Swedish emigration to America. Astrid Lindgren (1907-2002) was one of the most famous Swedes in the world. Her books for children have been translated into more than 60 languages, and 40 films have been made based on them. Carlson, who lives on the roof, and Pippi Longstocking have won the love of children all over the world. Astrid Lindgren (1907-2002) was one of the most famous Swedes in the world. Her books for children have been translated into more than 60 languages, and 40 films have been made based on them. Carlson, who lives on the roof, and Pippi Longstocking have won the love of children all over the world. Astrid Lindgren (1907-2002) was one of the most famous Swedes in the world. Her books for children have been translated into more than 60 languages, and 40 films have been made based on them. Carlson, who lives on the roof, and Pippi Longstocking have won the love of children all over the world.
Anders Zorn (1860-1920) stands out in the fine arts of Sweden, whose paintings reproduce scenes of rural life and nature in the province of Dalarna. The most famous sculptor is Carl Milles (1875-1955). In the park-museum, located in the Stockholm suburb of Lidingo, where he lived, worked and was buried, dozens of his sculptural ensembles are collected. Among them stand out directed to the sky “Man and Pegasus” and “Hand of the Creator”. He created a gallery of prominent statesmen of Sweden.
Sweden has made a significant contribution to world cinema. Ingmar Bergman (born 1918) is a theater and film director. During 1946-82 he created 40 films. The film “Smile of a Summer Night” brought him worldwide fame. The last film was Fanny and Alexander. Bergman continues to work in the theater. The “divine” Greta Garbo (1905-90) made her Hollywood debut in 1926. Her beauty and voice made her one of the most popular and attractive actresses in the world. Ingrid Bergman (1915–82) arrived in Hollywood at the beginning of 1940s Her most famous film is Casablanca. She received three Oscars for her roles.
Jussi Björling (1911–60) was one of the world’s leading tenors. He made his debut at the Stockholm Opera when he was not yet 20 years old. ABBA in the 1970s marked the beginning of an era of international recognition for Swedish pop music, which has become an important export item for the country. When ABBA ceased to exist in 1982, the number of records sold by them reached 250 million copies.
Björn Borg (born 1956) was named the most popular Swedish sportsman of the 20th century, he entered the history of tennis sport by winning the Wimbledon tournament 5 times in a row. Among other athletes, skier Ingemar Stenmark can be distinguished. Swedish national teams achieved great success in ice hockey and bandy, tennis and table tennis, football and other sports.