What is the Capital City of Egypt?

City Overview

Cairo, the sprawling capital of Egypt, is the largest city in the Arab world and Africa. It sits along the banks of the Nile River and has been a focal point of cultural, political, and social development for millennia. Known as “the city of a thousand minarets” for its prominent Islamic architecture, Cairo is a vibrant metropolis that blends the ancient with the modern. It is home to historic landmarks, bustling markets, and contemporary infrastructure. See all countries of the world.

Founded around AD 969 by the Fatimid dynasty, Cairo has evolved into a major center of the Arab and Islamic world. The city’s strategic location near the Nile Delta has made it a crucial hub for trade and commerce throughout history. Today, Cairo is the political and economic heart of Egypt, hosting governmental institutions, multinational companies, and educational establishments.

Map of Cairo

City Facts

  • Area: 606 square kilometers
  • Population: Approximately 21 million (as of 2021)
  • Time Zone: Eastern European Time (EET), UTC +2
  • Highest Mountain: Mokattam Hills
  • Longest River: Nile River

Major Landmarks

The Pyramids of Giza

The Pyramids of Giza are the most iconic symbols of Egypt and are located on the outskirts of Cairo. These ancient pyramids, including the Great Pyramid of Khufu, are among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and attract millions of tourists annually. The nearby Sphinx, with its lion’s body and human head, adds to the allure of this archaeological site.

The Egyptian Museum

The Egyptian Museum, situated in Tahrir Square, houses an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities. It contains over 120,000 items, including the treasures of Tutankhamun, mummies, and numerous artifacts that offer insights into the rich history of Egypt.

The Citadel of Saladin

The Citadel of Saladin, a medieval Islamic fortification, offers panoramic views of Cairo. It was constructed by Saladin in the 12th century to defend against Crusaders. Within its walls lie several mosques and museums, including the Mosque of Muhammad Ali, a significant landmark known for its striking Ottoman architecture.

Al-Azhar Mosque

Al-Azhar Mosque, founded in AD 970, is not only a place of worship but also one of the oldest universities in the world. It has been a center of Islamic learning for over a millennium and continues to be a prominent institution for Islamic studies.

Khan El Khalili

Khan El Khalili is a famous bazaar in the heart of Cairo’s Islamic district. This bustling market dates back to the 14th century and is renowned for its narrow alleyways filled with shops selling jewelry, spices, textiles, and souvenirs. It is a vibrant hub where locals and tourists alike enjoy the traditional Egyptian market experience.

Cairo Tower

The Cairo Tower stands on Gezira Island in the Nile River and offers breathtaking views of the city. At 187 meters tall, it is the tallest structure in Egypt and North Africa. The tower features an observation deck and a rotating restaurant, providing a unique perspective of Cairo’s skyline.

The Coptic Museum

The Coptic Museum is located in the Coptic Cairo district, home to many of Egypt’s Christian population. The museum houses the world’s largest collection of Coptic Christian artifacts, including manuscripts, textiles, and icons. This area also includes the Hanging Church and Ben Ezra Synagogue, highlighting the city’s diverse religious heritage.

Tahrir Square

Tahrir Square is a significant public space in downtown Cairo, known for its political and historical importance. It was the focal point of the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, which led to significant political changes in the country. The square is surrounded by government buildings, hotels, and cultural institutions.

Climate Overview

Cairo experiences a hot desert climate characterized by high temperatures during the summer months and mild winters. Rainfall is scarce, primarily occurring during the winter months. The city’s climate is influenced by its location in the Nile Valley, surrounded by deserts.

Month Average Temperature (°C) Precipitation (mm) Sunny Days
January 13.9 5 30
February 15.2 4 28
March 18.2 3 30
April 21.9 2 30
May 25.8 1 31
June 28.8 0 30
July 29.8 0 31
August 29.5 0 31
September 27.5 0 30
October 23.8 1 31
November 18.7 3 30
December 14.5 5 31

Other Historical Capitals


Years as Capital: c. 3100 BC to c. 2200 BC


Memphis, founded around 3100 BC by the first Pharaoh of Egypt, Menes, was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt. Located at the mouth of the Nile Delta, Memphis was a strategic hub for trade, administration, and military power in ancient Egypt. It was one of the most significant cities of the ancient world.

Historical Significance

Memphis served as the political and administrative heart of ancient Egypt during the Old Kingdom. It was the center of the cult of Ptah, the god of creation and craftsmen. The city was renowned for its impressive temples, palaces, and the colossal statue of Ramses II.

Major Landmarks

  • The Pyramid of Djoser: The step pyramid located in the Saqqara necropolis is one of the earliest large-scale cut stone constructions in Egypt.
  • The Temple of Ptah: A significant religious site dedicated to Ptah, the god of craftsmen and architects.
  • The Colossus of Ramses II: An enormous statue that once stood in the heart of Memphis, showcasing the grandeur of the Pharaohs.


Years as Capital: c. 2135 BC to 1279 BC (intermittently)


Thebes, known today as Luxor, was the capital of Egypt during parts of the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom. Located on the east bank of the Nile River, Thebes was a cultural and religious center, famed for its wealth, grandiose temples, and tombs of pharaohs.

Historical Significance

Thebes rose to prominence during the Middle Kingdom and reached its zenith during the New Kingdom. It was home to some of Egypt’s most powerful pharaohs, including Hatshepsut, Akhenaten, and Ramses II. The city was a focal point for religious worship, particularly the cult of Amun-Ra.

Major Landmarks

  • Karnak Temple: One of the largest temple complexes ever built, dedicated to the Theban triad of Amun, Mut, and Khonsu.
  • Luxor Temple: A majestic temple complex located on the east bank of the Nile.
  • Valley of the Kings: The burial site for many New Kingdom pharaohs, including Tutankhamun, located on the west bank of the Nile.


Years as Capital: 332 BC to 641 AD


Alexandria, founded by Alexander the Great in 332 BC, served as Egypt’s capital during the Hellenistic period and later under Roman and Byzantine rule. Situated on the Mediterranean coast, Alexandria was a center of learning and culture, famed for its library and lighthouse.

Historical Significance

Alexandria was a beacon of ancient knowledge and culture. The Library of Alexandria was the largest and most significant library of the ancient world. The Pharos of Alexandria, a lighthouse, was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The city played a pivotal role in the spread of Hellenistic culture and was a melting pot of Greek, Egyptian, and Roman influences.

Major Landmarks

  • The Great Library of Alexandria: Once the largest library in the ancient world, though it was destroyed in antiquity.
  • The Pharos of Alexandria: A towering lighthouse that guided sailors safely into the busy harbor.
  • The Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa: A historical archaeological site considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages.

Country Facts

  • Population: Approximately 104 million (as of 2021)
  • Area: 1,010,408 square kilometers
  • Largest City: Cairo
  • Currency: Egyptian Pound (EGP)
  • Official Language: Arabic
  • ISO Country Codes: EG, EGY, 818


Egypt has a mixed economy with significant contributions from agriculture, industry, and services. The country is known for its rich natural resources, including oil and gas. Tourism, particularly to historical sites and the Red Sea resorts, is a major revenue generator. The Suez Canal is also a crucial asset, providing a major source of income from transit fees.


Egyptian culture is a rich tapestry of ancient traditions and modern influences. The country’s heritage is deeply rooted in its Pharaonic history, reflected in its art, architecture, and customs. Egyptian cuisine, characterized by dishes like koshari and ful medames, is an integral part of the national identity. Festivals and celebrations, such as Ramadan and Eid, play a significant role in cultural life.

Education and Health

Egypt has a large education system, with compulsory education for children aged 6 to 14. The country boasts several prestigious universities, including Cairo University and Al-Azhar University. Despite improvements, the education system faces challenges related to quality and accessibility.

The healthcare system in Egypt includes both public and private services. While there has been progress in expanding healthcare access, the sector still faces issues such as overcrowding, limited resources, and disparities in healthcare quality between urban and rural areas.

Transportation and Infrastructure

Egypt’s transportation network includes an extensive system of roads, railways, and waterways. The country’s major airports, such as Cairo International Airport and Borg El Arab Airport in Alexandria, facilitate international travel. The Suez Canal, a vital waterway connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea, is crucial for global maritime trade.

Public transportation in Cairo includes buses, minibuses, and the Cairo Metro, which is the oldest and most extensive metro system in Africa. The government continues to invest in infrastructure projects, including the construction of new highways, rail lines, and urban development initiatives.

Natural Beauty and Tourism

Egypt is renowned for its diverse landscapes, from the fertile Nile Delta and the arid Sahara Desert to the stunning Red Sea coastline. Popular tourist destinations include the ancient pyramids, the temples of Luxor and Aswan, and the vibrant city of Alexandria. The Red Sea resorts, such as Sharm El Sheikh and Hurghada, are famous for their coral reefs, diving opportunities, and luxurious accommodations.

Ecotourism is also growing, with attractions like the White Desert and the Siwa Oasis offering unique experiences for nature lovers. Egypt’s historical and cultural heritage, combined with its natural beauty, makes it a top destination for tourists from around the world.

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