Yugoslavia Politics and Military
Conventional long form: Federal Republic of Yugoslavia;
conventional short form: Yugoslavia; local long form: Savezna Republika Jugoslavia; local short form: Jugoslavia
State structure: republic.
Administrative division: 2 republics and 2 autonomous regions*: Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*.
Independence: since April 27, 1992 (the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was formed, proclaiming itself the successor of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia).
National holiday: Republic Day, 29 November.
Constitution: adopted April 27, 1992
Legal system: based on the civil law system.
Suffrage: from 16 years old for employees; from the age of 18 universal.
head of state: President Vojislav KOŠTUNICA (since 7 October 1997);
head of government: Prime Minister Dragisa PESIC (since 24 July 2001); Deputy Prime Minister Miroljub LABUS (since 25 January 2001);
government: federal executive council; elections: the president is elected by direct universal suffrage for a four-year term (no more than two times); elections last held 24 September 2000 (next to be held in 2001); the prime minister is appointed by the president; election results: Vojislav KOŠTUNICA elected president; voting results: Vojislav KOSTUNICA 55%, Slobodan MILOSEVIC 35%.
Legislature: bicameral Federal Assembly (Savezna Skupstina) consists of the Chamber of Republics (Vece Republika) (40 seats – 20 Serbs, 20 Montenegrins; seats are distributed in accordance with party representation in the republican assemblies for a four-year term; note – the Assembly adopted a new constitutional amendment introducing direct elections of deputies of the upper house) and the Chamber of Citizens (Vece Gradjana) (138 seats – 108 for Serbs, half of which are elected in districts by a majoritarian system, and half by a proportional system, 30 for Montenegrins, of which 6 are elected in districts by a majoritarian system and 24 – under the proportional system; term of office – 4 years); elections: Chamber of the Republic – last held 24 September 2000 (next to be held in 2004); Chamber of Citizens – last held 24 September 2000 (next expected in 2004); election results: Chamber of Republics – distribution of votes between parties – NA; distribution of seats among parties – SNP 19, DOS 10, SPS/JUL 7, SRS 2, SPO 1, SNS 1; note – seats are distributed on a proportional basis in accordance with the composition of the legislative bodies of Montenegro and Serbia; Chamber of Citizens – distribution of votes between parties – no data; distribution of seats among parties – DOS 55, SPS/JUL 46, SNP 28, SRS 4, SNS 2, others 3. Chamber of Citizens – distribution of votes between parties – no data; distribution of seats among parties – DOS 55, SPS/JUL 46, SNP 28, SRS 4, SNS 2, others 3. Chamber of Citizens – distribution of votes between parties – no data; distribution of seats among parties – DOS 55, SPS/JUL 46, SNP 28, SRS 4, SNS 2, others 3.
Judiciary: Federal Court (Savezni Sud); Constitutional Court; the judges of both courts are elected by the Federal Assembly for nine-year terms.
Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Hungarians of Vojvodina (SVM) (Jozsef KASZA); Civil Alliance of Serbia (GSS) (Vesna PESIC [Vesna PESIC]); Sandzak Coalition (Rasim JAJIC); Sumadija Coalition (Branislav KOVACEVIC); Democratic Alternative (DA) (Nebojsa COVIC); Democratic Center (DC) (Dragoljub MICUNOVIC); Democratic Christian Party of Serbia (DHSS) (Vladan BATIC); Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK) (Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA, president); Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) (leader – NA); Democratic Party (DS) (Zoran DJINDJIC); Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS) (Vojislav KOSTUNICA); Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (DPS) (Milo DZUKANOVIC [Milo DJUKANOVIC]); Movement for Democratic Serbia (PDS) (Momcilo PERISIC [Mot-cilo PERISIC]); New Democracy (ND) (Dusan MIHAJLOVIC); New Serbia (Velimir ILIC, Milan PRO-TICH [Milan St. PROTIC]); People’s Party of Montenegro (NS) (Dragan SOC [Dragan SOC]); Serbian People’s Party (SNS) (leader – no data); Serbian Radical Party (SRS) (Vojislav SESELJ); Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO) (Vuk DRASKOVIC, president); Serbian Socialist Party (SPS) (former Communist Party) (Slobodan MILOSEVIC); Social Democracy (SD) (Vuk OBRADOVIC [Vuk OBRADOVIC]); Social Democratic Union (SDU) (Zarko KORAC); Socialist People’s Party of Montenegro (SNP) (Momir BULATO-VICH); United Yugoslav Left (JUL) (Ljubisa RISTIC).
Political pressure groups and their leaders: Alliance for the Future of Kosovo (AAK) (RA-MUSH, leader); Group of 17 independent economists (G-17) (leader – NA); National Movement for the Liberation of Kosovo (LKCK) (Sabit GASHI); Student resistance movement “Otpor” (leader – no data); Political Council for Presevo, Mevede and Bujanovac (PCRMV) (leader – NA); People’s Movement of Kosovo (LPK) (leader – no data).
Participation in international organizations: BIS, CE (guest), FAO (applicant), G-9, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer).
Diplomatic representation in the USA: Head of Mission: Ambassador Milan PRO-TIC; Office: 2410 California St. NW, Washington, DC 20008; note: Yugoslavia reopened its diplomatic mission to the US in November 2000 after it was suspended at the start of the NATO bombing campaign in March 1999.
US diplomatic mission: head of mission: ambassadorship vacant; Chargé d’Affaires William MONTGOMERY; embassy: Kneza Milosa 30, 11000 Belgrade; note: US re-established diplomatic relations with Yugoslavia on November 17, 2000; the embassy will not work until it is reconstructed.
Description of the flag: three equal horizontal stripes of blue (top), white and red.
Branches of the armed forces: army (includes ground and border troops, navy, air troops and air defense troops).
Conscription age: 19 pet.
Total Military Manpower: Male 15 to 49: 2,600,362 (2001 est.).
Eligible for military service: males aged 15 to 49: 2,088,595 (2001 est.).
Number of persons reaching military age each year: male: 82,542 (2001 est.).
Military spending in dollar terms: $760 million (2000)
Military spending as part of GDP: no data available.
International issues International disputes: Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Yugoslavia; according to Baglib.com, Yugoslavia and Croatia are negotiating the status of the strategically important Prevlaka peninsula, which is under the control of the UN military observer mission (UNMOP); an agreement concluded in February 2001 with the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia defines the course of the border and should be implemented within two years.
Illicit Drugs: Crossing Point for Heroin from Southwest Asia to Europe via the Balkan Route